2020
43
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102
Performance Optimization of Brushless DC Motors for the Mitigation of Voltage Dips, Swells and Short Interruptions in Weak Grids
2
2
Normally, the BLDC motor drives a sensitive load which is severely influenced by such disturbances. The main aim of this work is to investigate the performance of BLDC motors when they are tied to weak grids. Thus, this paper presents a study on the performance of the BLDC motor under disturbed utility conditions and implements an efficient solution in order to guarantee a soft operation in the case that a BLDC drives a sensitive load. A buckboost DC converter is merged with the BLDC drive inverter in order to be able to mitigate voltage dips as well as voltage swells. A short interruption of one or two phases of the grid voltage can also be mitigated. The BLDC motor is controlled via cascade PIcontroller layout that has an outer loop for the speed control and inner loop for the DC voltage control. The PI controllers’ gains are optimized by using the antcolony optimization technique and then implemented in a simulation model using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Six cases of disturbances have been simulated including balanced and unbalanced dips, swells and short interruption of one or two phases of the grid. Simulation results with various disturbances show the ability of the proposed controller to mitigate the grid disturbances with good transient and steadystate responses.
3

169
183


Hilmy
Awad
Electric Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Electric Technology, Faculty of Industrial
Iran
hilmy_awad@techedu.helwan.edu.eg


M. M.
Gouda
Electronics Technology Dep., Faculty of Technology and Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Electronics Technology Dep., Faculty of Technology
Iran
mohamedgouda@techedu.helwan.edu.eg
Ant Colony Optimization
BLDC
buckboost converter
Voltage Dip
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Available: 10.1007/s1223901401147. ##[6] Dirk Leman, “Green Combustion Cars Drive on Electric (BLDC) Motors”, Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2010, Springer, Online ISSN, 9783642163623 pp 1320. ##[7] Rini Nur Hasanah, Victor Andrean, Soeprapto, Hadi Suyono; R. Arief Setyawan, “Bidirectional VSI as a regenerativebraking converter for BLDC motor  An analysis on a plugin electric vehicle application”, the 10th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ELECO), Bursa, Turkey, 30 Nov.2 Dec 2017, pp. 222  226. ##[8] Tinu Francis and P. Gokulakrishnan, “Embedded Based PFC Converter for an Air Conditioner with BLDC Motor”, Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 326, Chapter 62, pp. 631641, Springer, New Delhi. ##[9] Volkhard Führer, Alexander Reul, “Modular Electric Oil Pumps with BLDC Motors”, The ATZ worldwide Journal, Springer, 2015, Issue 12, pp. 2631. ##[10] P. Santhosh and P. Vijayakumar, “Performance Study of BLDC Motor Used in Wireless Medical Applications”, Wireless Personal Communications: An International Journal, Springer, Electronic ISSN, 1572834X, Vol. 94 Issue 4, June 2017, pp. 24512458 ##[11] Kadwane, Sumant G., Kumbhare, Jyoti M., Gawande, S. P. and Mohanta, D. 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Kassas, “A novel and simple hybrid fuzzy/PI controller for brushless DC motor drives,” Automatika, Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, Taylor & Francis, Online ISSN, 18483380, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 424–435, 2015. ##[19] C. Yu Jin, K. H. Ryu, S. W. Sung et al., “PID autotuning using new model reduction method and explicit PID tuning rule for a fractional order plus time delay model,” Journal of Process Control, Elsevier, Online ISSN, 09591524, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 113–128, 2014. ##[20] D. Puangdownreong, A. Nawikavatan and C. Thammarat, "Optimal Design of IPD Controller for DC Motor Speed Control System by Cuckoo Search", Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, Online ISSN, 18770509, vol. 86, pp. 8386, 2016. Available: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.05.021. ##[21] K. J. ˚ Astr¨om and T. H¨agglund, “The future of PID control,” Control Engineering Practice, Elsevier, Online ISSN, 09670661, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1163–1175, 2001. ##[22] H. Ibrahim, F. Hassan, and A. O. Shomer, "Optimal PID control of a brushless DC motor using PSO and BF techniques," Ain Shams Eng. Journal, vol. 5, pp. 391398, 2014. ##[23] K. Premkumar and B. Manikandan, "Fuzzy PID supervised online ANFIS based speed controller for brushless dc motors," Neurocomputing, vol. 157, pp. 7690, 2015. ##[24] P. S. R. Nayak and T. A. Rufzal, "Flower Pollination Algorithm Based PI Controller Design for Induction Motor Scheme of SoftStarting," in the Proceedings of the 2018, 20th National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), Tiruchirappalli, India, 2018, pp. 16. ##[25] E. Ali, "Speed control of DC series motor supplied by photovoltaic system via firefly algorithm", Neural Computing and Applications, Springer, Electronic ISSN, 14333058, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 13211332, 2014. Available: 10.1007/s0052101417965. ##[26] W. Xie, J. Wang and H. Wang, "PI Controller of Speed Regulation of Brushless DC Motor Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Improved Inertia Weights", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Hindawi, Online ISSN: 15635147, vol. 2019, pp. 112, 2019. Available: 10.1155/2019/2671792. ##[27] M. Moghaddas, M. Dastranj, N. Changizi and M. Rouhani, "PID Control of DC Motor Using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm", Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, International Scientific Research Publications MY SDN. BHD, vol. 01, no. 04, pp. 386391, 2010. Available: 10.22436/jmcs.001.04.16. ##[28] B. Adhavan, A. Kuppuswamy, G. Jayabaskaran and V. Jagannathan, "Field oriented control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using fuzzy logic controller," in the Proceeding of 2011 IEEE Recent Advances in Intelligent Computational Systems, Trivandrum, Kerala, 2011, pp. 587592. ##[29] B. Sarkar, P. Mandal, R. Saha, S. Mookherjee and D. Sanyal, "GAoptimized feedforwardPID tracking control for a rugged electrohydraulic system design", ISA Transactions, Elsevier ISSN, 00190578, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 853861, 2013. Available: 10.1016/j.isatra.2013.07.008. ##[30] G. Zeng et al., "Design of multivariable PID controllers using realcoded populationbased extremal optimization", Neurocomputing, Elsevier, ISSN, 09252312, vol. 151, pp. 13431353, 2015. Available: 10.1016/j.neucom.2014.10.060. ##[31] J. Zhang and S. Yang, "An incrementalPIDcontrolled particle swarm optimization algorithm for EEGdatabased estimation of operator functional state", Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Elsevier ISSN, 17468094,vol. 14, pp. 272284, 2014. Available: 10.1016/j.bspc.2014.08.005. ##[32] T. Kumbasar and H. Hagras, "Big Bang–Big Crunch optimization based interval type2 fuzzy PID cascade controller design strategy", Information Sciences, Elsevier ISSN, 00200255, vol. 282, pp. 277295, 2014. Available: 10.1016/j.ins.2014.06.005.. ##[33] A. Rajasekhara, R. K. Jatothb, A. Abrahamcd, “Design of intelligent PID/PIλDμ speed controller for chopper fed DC motor drive using opposition based artificial bee colony algorithm”, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier, ISSN, 09521976, Vol. 29, March 2014, pp. 1332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2013.12.009. ##[34] S. A. Taher, M. Hajiakbari Fini, and S. Falahati Aliabadi, “Fractional order PID controller design for LFC in electric power systems using imperialist competitive algorithm,” Ain Shams Engineering Journal, ISSN, 20904479, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 121–135, 2014. ##[35] R. K. Sahu, S. Panda, and U. K. Rout, “DE optimized parallel 2 DOF PID controller for load frequency control of power system with governor deadband nonlinearity,” International Journal of Electrical Power &Energy Systems, Elsevier, ISSN 01420615, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 19–33, 2013. ##[36] F. Cao and W. Wang, “Harmony searchbased particle swarm optimization approach for optimal PID control in electroslag remelting process,” International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, Inderscience , ISSN, 17466180,vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2012. ##[37] Dorigo, M., Maniezzo, V., and Colorni, A., “Positive Feedback as a Search Strategy,” Technical report 91016, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 1991. ##[38] Dorigo, M., “Optimization, Learning and Natural Algorithms” Ph.D. thesis, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, 1992 (in Italian). ##[39] Shengqiang Li, Xiaodong Liang and W. Xu, "Modeling DC motor drive systems in power system dynamic studies," 2014 IEEE/IAS 50th Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, Fort Worth, TX, 2014, pp. 111, doi: 10.1109/ICPS.2014.6839167.[40] E. R. Collins and A. Mansoor, "Effects of voltage sags on AC motor drives," 1997 IEEE Annual Textile, Fiber and Film Industry Technical Conference, Greenville, SC, USA, 1997, pp. 9. 7 pp., doi: 10.1109/TEXCON.1997.598533. ##[41] Myo Thu Aung and J. V. Milanovic, "Analytical assessment of the effects of voltage sags on induction motor dynamic responses," 2005 IEEE Russia Power Tech, St. Petersburg, 2005, pp. 17, doi: 10.1109/PTC.2005.4524363. ##[42] A. K. Goswami, C. P. Gupta and G. K. Singh, "Voltage Sag Assessment in a Large Chemical Industry," 2008 Joint International Conference on Power System Technology and IEEE Power India Conference, New Delhi, 2008, pp. 17, doi: 10.1109/ICPST.2008.4745220. ##[43] N. Edomah, "Effects of voltage sags, swell and other disturbances on electrical equipment and their economic implications," CIRED 2009  20th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution  Part 1, Prague, Czech Republic, 2009, pp. 14, doi: 10.1049/cp.2009.0502. ##[44] J. C. Gomez, M. M. Morcos, C. A. Reineri and G. N. Campetelli, "Behaviour of induction motor due to voltage sags and short interruptions," in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 434440, April 2002, doi: 10.1109/61.997914. ##[45] M.H.J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions, Textbook, New York, IEEE Press, Online ISBN: 9780470546840, 1999. ##[46] R. C. Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan, H. W. Beaty, Electrical Power Systems Quality, Textbook, ISBN10: 0071761551,New York, McGrawHill, 1996. ##[47] European Standard EN 50160, “Voltage characteristics of electricity supplied by public distribution systems.”, available at: https://copperalliance.org.uk/uploads/2018/03/542standarden50160voltagecharacteristicsin.pdf ##[48] J. C. Das, “Effects of momentary voltage dips on the operation of induction and synchronous motors”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 1990, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 711 – 718 ##[49] Ian Griffin, “Online PID Controller Tuning using Genetic Algorithm”, Master Thesis, Dublin City University, 2003 ##[50] H. YingTung, C. ChengLong, C. ChengChih, “Ant Colony Optimization for Designing of PID Controllers”, IEEE International Symposium on Computer Aided Control Systems Design, Taipei, Taiwan, 24th September, 2004. ##[51] I. Chiha, P. Borne, “MultiObjective Ant Colony Optimization to Tuning PID Controller”, Proceedings of the International Journal of Engineering, Vol. III, issue no. 2, March 2010. ##[52] B. Nagaraj and N. Murugananth, "A comparative study of PID controller tuning using GA, EP, PSO and ACO," 2010 International Conference on Communication Control and Computing Technologies, Ramanathapuram, 2010, pp. 305313. ##[53] F.Hassan, A.Wakeel, A.Kamel and A.Abdelhamed. ''Optimum Tuning of PID Controller for a Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor'', Proceedings of the 8th ICEENG Conference, 2931 May 2012. ##]
Characteristics of a SinusoidallyDistributed CylindricalRotor SelfExcited SinglePhase Synchronous Generator
2
2
The smallscale power systems favor the installation of selfexcited synchronous generators due to their simple construction. Many configurations were reported in the literature but there have been always two issues: voltage regulation (VR) and total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage. This paper presents an experimental investigation to improve the performance of singlephase, selfexcited, synchronous generator (SPSESG) in terms of the VR and THD. The applied modification is the implementation of sinusoidallydistributed stator windings which implies a different number of turns in each slot. A typical lab singlephase synchronous machine was rewound with the proper number of turns in each slot and then tested against resistive, resistiveinductive, resistivecapacitive, and dynamic loads (induction motor). The experimental results proved that the modified generator performance has significantly improved in terms of the VR and THD. The worst VR was recorded in the case of dynamic load and it was 6.5 %. While the highest THD was 4.5 %, at no load. These figures are much better than other configurations reported in the literature.
3

185
193


Hilmy
Awad
Electric Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Electric Technology, Faculty of Industrial
Iran
hilmy_awad@techedu.helwan.edu.eg


Elwy
Elkholy
Rector of Delta University of Technology
Rector of Delta University of Technology
Iran
e.e.elkholy@ieee.org
Selfexcited
Sinusoidallydistributed windings
Synchronous generator
Voltage regulation
[[1] W. E. Vanço, F. B. Silva, C. M. R. De Oliveira, J. R. B. A. Monteiro, and J. M. M. De Oliveira, "A Proposal of Expansion and Implementation in Isolated Generation Systems Using SelfExcited Induction Generator With Synchronous Generator," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 117188117195, 2019. ##[2] Y. Wang and N. Bianchi, "Investigation of SelfExcited Synchronous Reluctance Generators," in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 13601369, MarchApril 2018. ##[3] W. E. Vanço, F. B. Silva, F. A. S. Gonçalves, E. O. Silva, C. A. Bissochi, and L. M. Neto, "Experimental analysis of selfexcited induction generators operating in parallel with synchronous generators applied to isolated load generation," in IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 17301736, April 2016. ##[4] N. Bouchiba, S. Salem, and M. B. A. Kammoun, "Threephase selfexcited induction generator analysis in standalone mode," IREC2015 The 6th International Re newable Energy Congress, Sousse, 2015, pp. 16. ##[5] R. C. Bansal, "Threephase selfexcited induction generators: an overview," in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 292299, June 2005. ##[6] K. A. Chinmaya and G. K. Singh, "Performance evaluation of multiphase induction generator in standalone and gridconnected wind energy conversion system," in IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 823831, 21 5 2018. ##[7] Y. Wang and N. Bianchi, "Investigation of SelfExcited Synchronous Reluctance Generators," in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 13601369, MarchApril 2018. ##[8] C. Chakraborty and Y. T. Rao, "Performance of Brushless Induction Excited Synchronous Generator," in the IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 25712582, Dec. 2019. ##[9] S. S. Maroufian and P. Pillay, "SelfExcitation Criteria of the Synchronous Reluctance Generator in StandAlone Mode of Operation," in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 12451253, MarchApril 2018. ##[10] S. Nonaka and K. Kesamaru, "Analysis of new brushless selfexcited singlephase synchronous generator by finite element method," Conference Record of the 1992 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Houston, TX, USA, 1992, pp. 198203 vol.1. ##[11] F. Shibata and T. Kohrin, "A Brushless, SelfExcited SinglePhase Synchronous Generator Operating with Load and Exciting Currents Flowing in Armature," in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. EC2, no. 2, pp. 254261, June 1987. ##[12] W. S. AbuElhaija and A. Muetze, "SelfExcitation and Stability at Speed Transients of SelfExcited SinglePhase Reluctance Generators," in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 136144, Jan. 2013. ##[13] F. Shibata and N. Naoe, "Characteristics of brushless and exciterless, selfexcited synchronous generators," Conference Record of the 1990 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA, 1990, pp. 293300 vol.1. ##[14] M. F. Moussa, Y. G. Dessouky and B. W. Williams, "Control strategy of a 6 MVA Series Connected Synchronous Generator for wind power," IET Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2011), Edinburgh, 2011, pp. 16. ##[15] TzeFun Chan, Weimin Wang, and L. L. Lai, "Seriesconnected selfexcited synchronous generator for distributed generation," IEEE PES General Meeting, Providence, RI, 2010, pp. 16. ##[16] A. L. Mohamadein, H. A. Yousef, and Y. G. Dessouky, "Seriesconnected selfexcited synchronous generator: steadystate and transient behaviors," in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 11081114, Dec. 1999. ##[17] F. Rebahi, A. Bentounsi, H. Khelifa, O. Boulkhrachef, and D. Meherhera, "Comparative study of a selfexcited induction and synchronous reluctance generators capabilities," 2019 International Conference on Advanced Electrical Engineering (ICAEE), Algiers, Algeria, 2019, pp. 15. ##[18] M. Abdelrazek, H. Awad, and E. E. ElKholy, "An experimental investigation of a selfexcited synchronous generator: Loading characteristics and output voltage harmonics," 2017 Nineteenth International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON), Cairo, 2017, pp. 823829. ##[19] Hilmy Awad, Mohamed Wadi, Essam Hamdi, “A selfexcited synchronous generator for small hydro applications”, in Proceedings of the International. Conference on Energy, Environment, Ecosystems, and Sustainable Development, 2005, pp. 15 ##[20] S. Nonaka and T. Kawaguchi, "A new variablespeed AC generator system using a brushless selfexcitedtype synchronous machine," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.490496, MarchApril 1992. ##[21] S. Nonaka and T. Kawaguchi, "Excitation scheme of brushless selfexcited type threephase synchronous machine," in Proc. of IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Vol. 1, pp. 443448, 28 Sept.4 Oct. 1991. ## [22] BUKSNAITIS, J., 2018. Sinusoidal ThreePhase Windings Of Electric Machines, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, ISBN 9783319429298. ##[23] M. A. Kabir, M. Z. M. Jaffar, Z. Wan and I. Husain, "Design and experimental evaluation of a multilayer AC winding configuration for sinusoidal MMF with shorter endturn length," 2017 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Cincinnati, OH, 2017, pp. 58345839. ##]
Mixed Convection Heat Transfer from a Short Vertical Cylinder Placed in a Cross Flow
2
2
Experimental study of mixed free and forced convection heat transfer from a vertical heated cylinder placed in a crossflow is studied for Reynolds number from 1.1×103 to 3.3×104 and Prandtl number 0.7. The average Nusselt number is calculated and correlated with the Reynolds number. An empirical correlation for predicting the overall heat transfer from the cylinder is developed for this case.
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195
197


Yasser
Rihan
Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
Iran
yarihan159@yahoo.com
heat transfer
Vertical cylinder
Mixed convection
Crossflow
[[1] T. S. Chen, and A. Mucoglu, ''Buoyancy effects on forced convection along a vertical cylinder", J. Heat Transfer 93 , pp. 198203, 1971. ##[2] A. Mucoglu, and T. S. Chen, "Buoyancy effects on forced convection along a vertical cylinder with uniform surface heat flux", J. Heat Transfer 98 , pp. 523525, 1976. ##[3] E. M. Sparrow, H. Quack, and C. J. Boerner, "Local nonsimilarity boundary layer solutions", AIAA J. 8, pp. 19361942, 1970. ## [4] E. M. Sparrow, and H. S. Yu, "Local nonsimilarity thermal boundary solutions", J. Heat Transfer 93 , pp. 328334, 1971. ##[5] A. Zukauskas, and J. Ziugzda, “Heat transfer of a cylinder in crossflow”, hemisphere pub., Washington; New York, 1985. ##[6] S. W. Churchill, and M. Bernstein, “A correlating equation for forced convection from gases and liquids to a circular cylinder in cross flow”, J. Heat Transfer 99, pp. 300306, 1977. ##[7] S. Sanitjai, and R. J. Goldstein, “Forced convection heat transfer from a circular cylinder in crossflow to air and liquids”, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 47, pp. 47954805, 2004. ##[8] Z. G. Kostic, and S. N. Oks, “Fluid flow and heat transfer with two cylinders in cross flow”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 15, pp. 279299, 1971. ##[9] F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, “Introduction to heat transfer”, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. ##[10] M. F. Young, and T. R. Ulrich, “Mixed convection heat transfer from a vertical heated cylinder in a crossflow”, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 26, pp. 18891892, 1983. ##[11] N. Shah, N. Ahmed, D. Vieru, C. Fetecau, "Effects of double stratification and heat flux damping on convective flows over a vertical cylinder", Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 60, pp. 290306, August 2019. ##[12] C. G. Patel, S. Sarkar, S. K. Saha, "Mixed convective vertically upward flow past sidebyside square cylinders at incidence", Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 127, Part A, pp. 927947, December 2018.##]
Experimental Study of the Performance of a VenturiMeter with Suspended GasSolid Flow
2
2
ABSTRACT Due to the urgent need for electricity sources in Egypt, this investigation is an attempt to prepare a metering tool for measuring the flow rate of the suspended gassolid mixture flows in coal thermal power stations. One of the simplest methods for accurately measuring the flow rate of pulverized coal in the thermal power stations is the venturi meter. In the present work, different geometrical models have been designed and applied for measuring aircoal mixture flow rate, considering the effect of different operational parameters on the pressure sensitivity, pressure recovery and performance of the venturi models. The measurements showed the effects of these parameters on the pressure drop and the pressure distribution. New charts have been deduced from the experimental data for seven nonstandard venturi models that shows different effects of particle size, loading ratio and throat length of venturi. From the experimental results a new correlation for twophase flow discharge coefficient is deduced in the present study and comparison between the experimental and calculated is done with error percentage from +25% to 20%.
3

199
209


Ismail
Sakr
Mechanical Power eng. Faculty of eng.
Mechanical Power eng. Faculty of eng.
Iran
ismailsakr@yahoo.com


Wageeh
ElAskary
Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University
Department of Mechanical Power Engineering,
Iran
wageeh_elaskary@yahoo.com


Mohamed
Sheha
MPE
MPE
Iran
mohamedsheha40@yahoo.com


Tarek
ghonim
Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin ElKom Egypt
Mechanical Power Engineering Department,
Iran
tarek_ghonim@sheng.menofia.edu.eg
Gassolid
TwoPhase flow, Geometrical parameters
Operational parameters
[[1] Allen R.W.K. and van Santen A., “Designing for pressure drop in Venturi scrubbers: the importance of dry pressure drop”, Chemical Engineering, 61, pp.203211,1996. ##[2] Allen R.W.K., “Prediction of Venturi scrubber grade efficiency curves using the contacting power law”, Powder Technology, 86, pp.137144, 1996. ##[3] Giddings D., Azzopardi B.J., Aroussi A. and Pickering S.J., “Optical investigation of a longthroated Venturi conveying inert spherical particulate with size range similar to pulverized coal”, Powder Technology, 207, pp.370377, 2011. ## [4] Zhansong W. and Fei X., “Optimization of Venturi tube design for pipeline pulverized coal flow measurements”, Energy Power, 2, pp.369373, 2008. ##[5] Cai L., Jiawei H., Hengyu L., Liu S., Gaoyang Y., Xiaoping C., and Changsui Z., “Resistance characteristics of pressure letdown in densephase pneumatic conveying”, Chemical Engineering, 49, pp.511518, 2016. ##[6] Kai L., Haifeng L., Xiaolei G., Xiaolin S., Shunlong T., and Xin G., “Experimental study on flow characteristics and pressure drop of gas–coal mixture through venturi”, Powder Technology, 268, pp.401 411, 2014. ##[7] Azzopardi B.J., Teixeira S.F.C.F. and Pulford C.I., “A quasionedimensional model for gassolid flow in ventures”, Powder Technology, 102, pp.281288, 1999. ##[8] Haifeng L., Xiaolei G., Wanjie H., Kai L., and Xin G., “Flow characteristics and pressure drop across the Laval nozzle in dense phase pneumatic conveying of the pulverized coal”, Chemical Engineering and Processing, 50, pp.702708, 2011. ##[9] Cai L., John R., Liu S., Gaoyang Y., Xiaoping C., and Changsui Z., “Experimental investigation of pressure letdown flow characteristics in densephase pneumatic conveying at high pressure”, Powder Technology, 277, pp.171180, 2015. ## [10] Haifeng L., Xiaolei G., Peng L., Kai L., and Xin G., “Design optimization of a venturi tube geometry in densephase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal for entrainedflow gasification”, Chemical Engineering, 120, pp.208217, 2017. ##[11] Richard H., “System for measuring entrained solid flow”, New York, N.Y., Babcock and Wilcox Technology Inc, 1980. ##[12] Herbreteau C. and Board R., “Experimental study of parameters which influence the energy minimum in horizontal gassolid conveying”, Powder Technology, 112, pp.213–220, 2000. ##[13] ReaderH., Brunton W.C., Gibson J.J., Hodges D., and Nicholson I.G., "Discharge coefficients of Venturi tubes with standard and nonstandard convergent angles”, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 12, pp.135145, 2001. ##[14] Gary O. and Anthony P., “FlowRate measurement in twophase flow”, Fluid Mech., 36, pp.149172, 2004. ##[15] Wang Z.L., Ding Y.L. and Ghadiri M., “Flow of a gassolid twophase mixture through a packed bed”, Chemical and Particle Science, 59, pp. 30713079, 2004. ##[16] Hu H.L., Xu T.M., Hui S.E. and Zhou Q.L., “A novel capacitive system for the concentration measurement of pneumatically conveyed pulverized fuel at power stations”, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 17, pp.8792, 2006. ##[17] Ali M., Qi Y. C. and Mehboob K., “A Review of Performance of a Venturi Scrubber”, Nuclear Science and Technology, 4(19), pp.38113818,2012. ##[18] Ying X., Qiang Z., Tao Z. and Xili B., “An overreading model for nonstandard Venturi meters based on H correction factor”, Flow Measurement, 61, pp.100106, 2015. ##[19] Grazia M., Mario De S. and Bruno P., “Twophase flow measurements at high void fraction by a Venturi Meter”, Flow Measurement, 77, pp.167175,2014. ##[20] Schade K.P., Erdmann H.J., Hadrich Th., Schneider H., Frank T. and Bernert K., “Experimental and numerical investigation of particle erosion caused by pulverized fuel in channels and pipework of coalfired power plant”, Powder Technology 125, pp.242250, 2002. ##[21] Xiaoqiang Z., Dongfeng Z., Wang and Yide G., “Transportation characteristics of gassolid twophase flow in a longdistance pipeline”, Particuology, 21, pp.196202,2015. ##[22] Thiago F. de P., Rodrigo B. and José T. F., “GasSolid Flow Behavior in a Pneumatic Conveying System for Drying Applications: Coarse Particles Feeding with a Venturi Device”, Chemical Engineering, 5, pp.225238, 2015. ##[23] Richard H. B., “Particle Collection and Pressure Drop in Venturi Scrubbers”, Chemical Engineering, 12, pp.4050,1973. ## [24] Giddings D., Azzopardi B.J., Aroussi A. and Pickering S.J., “Absolute measurement of pneumatically conveyed powder using a single long throat venturi”, Powder Technology, 172, pp.149156,2007. ##[25] ElBehery S. M., ElAskary W. A., Ibrahim K. A. and Mofreh H. Hamed., " Porous Particles Drying in a Vertical Upward Pneumatic Conveying Dryer ", International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, pp.110125,2011. ##[26] ElAskary W. A., Ibrahim K. A., ElBehery S. M., Mofreh H. Hamed. and AlAgha M.S.," Performance of vertical diffusers carrying gassolid flow: experimental and numerical studies", Powder Technology, 273, pp.1932,2015. ##[27] Zhang J., Xiao L., Zhaoyang C., Yu Z., Gang L., Kefeng Y. and Tao L., "GasLifting Characteristics of MethaneWater Mixture and Its Potential Application for SelfEruption Production of Marine Natural Gas Hydrates". Energies, 240, pp.122, 2018. ##[28] Holman J.P., "Experimental methods for engineers", 7th ed. McGrawHill,2000. ##[29] Ghonim, T. A., Sheha, M., Sakr, I. M. and ElAskary, W. A., " Experimental study on GasSolid mixture flows in a Venturi", 18th International Conference on Applied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, 35 April, pp.1829,2018. ##[30] ElBehery S. M., ElAskary W. A., Ibrahim K. A. and Mofreh H. Hamed., "Numerical and experimental studies of heat transfer in particleladen gas flows through a vertical riser", International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 30, pp.118130,2012. ##[31] Doss, E.," Analysis and application of solidgas flow inside a venturi with particle interaction", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. I 1, No. 4, pp. 445458,1985.##]
Investigation of Using Nanosilica, Silica Fume and Fly Ash in High Strength Concrete
2
2
Various challenges encountered in the construction industry have led to the production of concrete, with not just high strength, but also with enhanced durability properties. This study investigates the performance and durability of hardened high strength concrete cast using Nanosilica, silica fume and fly ash. Experiments were conducted by substituting cement by weight with Nanosilica, silica fume or fly ash with ratios of 5 %, 10% and 15% and compared to a control mix. The durability performance of the high strength concrete, in terms of water permeability, sulfates resistance, chloride resistance and freezethawing tests were tested. This study generally proposes a sustainable solution to produce durable concrete that could have useful application in the construction industry. Based on the results obtained, the hardened properties of concrete improved depending on the type of supplementary cementious materials. Test results showed that Nanosilica has a great influence on concrete properties, but the high dosage show a reverse result.
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221


Mohamed
Fahmy
geology department, faculty of science, Menoufia university, menoufia, Egypt.
geology department, faculty of science, Menoufia
Iran
geomohamedashraf@gmail.com


Mohamed
Abu ElHassan
Geology Departmet, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University
Geology Departmet, Faculty of Science, Menoufia
Iran
abouelhassanmohamed@gmail.com


Gamal
Kamh
Geology Dept. Facultype of Science
Geology Dept. Facultype of Science
Iran
gkamh2013@yahoo.com


Alaa
Bashandy
Civil Eng. Dep., Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt.
Civil Eng. Dep., Faculty of Engineering,
Iran
eng_alb@yahoo.com
High strength concrete
Nanosilica
Silica Fume
Fly Ash
[[1] T.R. Naik, F.ASCE, 2008, "Sustainability of concrete construction" Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 98–103. ##[2] K. L. Scrivener, V. M. John, E. M. Gartner (2016) Ecoefficient cements: potential, economically viable solutions for a lowCO2, cementbased materials industry. Cement Concrete Res 114:2–26. United Nations Environment Program. www.unep.org ##[3] B. K. K. Bai and M. K. Rao, "Strength and Durability Properties of High Performance Concrete Incorporating Silica Fume and Fly Ash," International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Emerging Technologies "IJESET", vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2329, 2015. ##[4] N. N. Meleka, A. A. Bashandy and M. A. Arab, "UltraHigh Strength Concrete Using Economical Materials," International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology IJCET, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 393402, 2013. ##[5] O. M. A. Daoud and H. S. Sagady, " Production and Properties of High Strength Concrete for Heightening Concrete Dam in Sudan" Int. J. of GEOMATE, June, 2013, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Sl. No. 8), pp. 539545. Geotec., Const. Mat. & Env., Japan. ##[6] M. Kumar and Z. Ma, "Mechanical Properties of HighStrength Concrete," 2012 Materials Journal. ##[7] M. M. Kamal, M. A. Safan, A. A. Bashandy and A. M. Khalil, "Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Normal Strength and High Strength Selfcuring Selfcompacting Concrete," Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 79–93, 2018. ##[8] M. M. Emad, N. M. Soliman and A. A. Bashandy, "Recycled Aggregate HighStrength Concrete," International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology "IJCIET" (ISSN 09766316), vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 128146, 2019. ##[9] A. A. Bashandy, N. M. Soliman and M. H. AbdElrahman, "Recycled Aggregate Selfcuring Highstrength Concrete," Civil Engineering Journal (ISSN 24763055), vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 427441, 2017. ##[10] M. Mittal, S. Basu and A. Sofi, "Effect of Sika Viscocrete on Properties of Concrete," International Journal of Civil Engineering (IJCE), vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 6166, 2013. ##[11] J. J. Gaitero, I. Campillo, P. Mondal and S. P. Shah, 2010, "Small Changes Can Make a Great Difference" In Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation. Volume: 2141, issue: 1, page(s): 15 ##[12] J.Song, and S. Liu. "Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application in Highway Bridge." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2016). ##[13] B. S. Mohammed, V. C. Khed and M. Fadhil, 2017, "A Review on Nanosilica Based Concrete," J Nanomed Nanoscience: JNAN128, Volume 02; Issue 05. DOI: 10.29011/. ##[14] S. Du, O. Alshareedah and X. Shi, "Nanotechnology in CementBased Materials: A Review of Durability, Modelin 5g, and Advanced Characterization," Nanomaterials, vol. 9, no. 9, 2019. ##[15] R. Siddique and M. I. Khan, "Supplementary Cementing Materials, Silica Fume," XVI Publishers, 288 P, ISBN: 978 3642178658, p. 288, 2011. ##[16] A. Bashir, M. Gul, J. A Naqash, A. Masood, " Study of Permeability and Compressive Strength of Silica Fume Concrete" International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume3, Issue4, April 2014. ##[17] M. N. Haque and O. Kayali, "Properties of HighStrength Concrete Using a Fine Fly Ash," Cement Concrete Research, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 14451452, 1998. ##[18] M. A. Rasol, "Effect of Silica Fume on Concrete Properties and Advantages for Kurdistan Region, Iraq," International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 170173, 2015. ##[19] T. Sankaralingam, A. Chandanroy and S. N. Pandey, "Fly Ash For Cement Concrete," Ash Utilization DivisionNTPC Limited, A11, NFL Premises, Sector–24, Noida–201301, 2007. ##[20] M.Tokyay, "Cement and Concrete Mineral Admixtures". CRC Press, 2016. ##[21] K. N. Ismail, K. Hussin and M. S. Idris, "Physical, Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Fly Ash," Journal of Nuclear and Related Technology, vol. 4, no. Special Edd., pp. 4751, 2007. ##[22] N. Gamage, K. Liyanage, S. Fragomeni and S. Setunge, "Overview of Different Types of Fly Ash and their use as a Building and Construction Material," in International Conference of Structural Engineering, Construction and Management, 2011. ##[23] G. Li, "Properties of Highvolume Fly Ash Concrete Incorporating NanoSiO2," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 799806, 2003. ##[24] P. Nath and P. Sarker, "Effect of Fly Ash on the Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete," Procedia Engineering, vol. 14, p. 1149–1156, 2011. ##[25] A. M. Said, M. S. Zeidan, M. T. Bassuoni and Y. Tian, "Properties of Concrete Incorporating Nanosilica," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 36, pp. 838844, 2012. ##[26] O. S. B. AlAmoudi, M. .. Maslehuddin and T. O. Abiola, "Effect of Type and Dosage of Silica Fume on Plastic Shrinkage in Concrete Exposed to Hot Weather," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 737743, 2004. ##[27] A. Annadurai and A. Ravichandran, "Development of Mix Design for High Strength Concrete with Admixtures," IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSRJMCE), vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 2227, 2014. ##[28] M. Thomas, 2007, "Optimizing the Use of Fly Ash in Concrete" Portland Cement Association, Publication IS548, 2007, pp. 24. ##[29] A. V. Rao and K. S. Rao, "Effect of Fly Ash on Mechanical Properties of M30 and M60 Grade Concrete," International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), vol. 8, no. 3, p. 193–200, 2017. ##[30] A. V. Rao and K. S. Rao, "Effect of Fly Ash on Strength of Concrete," Circular Economy and Fly Ash Management, vol. 8, no. 3S, pp. 125134, 2019. ##[31] M. Thomas, 2007, "Optimizing the Use of Fly Ash in Concrete" Portland Cement Association, Publication IS548, 2007, pp. 24. ##[32] L. K. Saini and J. R. Nayak, "To Study Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete after Partially Replacing Cement by Silica Fume," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 752755, 2019. ##[33] I. A. Sharaky, F. A. Megahed, M. H. Seleem and A. M. Badawy, "The Influence of Silica Fume, Nano Silica and Mixing Method on the Strength and Durability of Concrete," SN Applied Sciences, vol. 575, 2019. ##[34] Ganesh, R. Murthy, S. Kumar, M. S. Reheman and Iyer, "Effect of nanosilica on durability and mechanical properties of highstrength concrete," Magazine of Concrete Research, November 2015, Volume:68, pp. 18.##]
Behavior of SelfCompacting Concrete in Simulated Hot Weather
2
2
Climate changes have been an issue to consider in the last few years. In this research, the performance of selfcompacting concrete in simulated hot weather conditions is investigated. Test parameters included the ambient temperature, induced materials temperature, and the use of a retarder. The rheological properties, early shrinkage, and compressive strength were determined for different test parameters. The performance enhancement due to cooling the concrete materials and the use of a retarder was assessed and quantified. The results showed that the use of a retarder had an adverse effect on the compressive strength between 7 and 90 days in simulated hot weather conditions. The Jring outputs were the most improved due to cooling SCC materials. On the other hand, Vfunnel time T5 and the 28day compressive and tensile strength were the least improved. The use of a retarder further reduced the compressive and tensile strength improvement percentage and increased the percentage enhancement of Vfunnel T5 time.
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230


Mohamed
Saafan
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Menoufia University, Shebeen ElKoom, Menoufia, EGYPT
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Menoufia
Iran
msaafan2017@gmail.com


zeinab
Etman
Civil engineering department, faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Egypt
Civil engineering department, faculty of
Iran
zeinab.etman@sheng.menofia.edu.eg


Thamir
Bait ALShab
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng. Nenoufia University.
Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng. Nenoufia
Iran
abujasimthamer@yahoo.com
hot weather
SCC
retarder
Shrinkage
Mechanical Properties
[[1] A. Yahai, M. Tanimura, A. Shimabukuro, and Y. Shimayama, “Effects of rheological parameters on selfcompact ability of concrete containing various mineral admixtures” First International RILEM Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, September 1999, pp. 1314. ##[2] B.V. Chavan, and P.O. Modani. “Experimental investigation on selfcompacting concrete by replacing natural sand with artificial sand” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol. 6, No. 5, May 2019, pp. 69016903. ##[3] D.E. Branson and M.L. Christiason, “Timedependent concrete properties related to designstrength and elastic properties” Designing for Effects of Creep, Shrinkage, Temperature in Concrete Structures, SP27, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, pp. 257277. ##[4] S.R. Ramesh, H. Venugopal, and N. Jayaramappa, “Literature review on selfcompacting concrete” ParipexIndian Journal of Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 2022. https://www.doi.org/10.36106/paripex ##[5] M. Hayakawa, et.al, “Development and application of super workable concrete” In Special Concretes: Workability and Mixing; E&FN Spon, London, 1994, pp. 183190. ##[6] Y.F, Silva, R.A. Robayo, P.E. Mattey, and S. Delvasto, “Properties of selfcompacting concrete on fresh and hardened with residue of masonry and recycled concrete” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 124, pp. 639644. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.07.057 ##[7] ACI 305R10, “Guide to hot weather concreting” ACI Committee 305, 20p. ##[8] ASTM C94, “Readymixed concrete” ASTM Committee C09, Feb. 2000, 10 p. ##[9] M. Nasir, O.S.B AlAmoudi, H.J. AlGahtani, and M. Maslehuddin, “Effect of casting temperature on strength and density of plain and blended cement concretes prepared and cured under hot weather conditions” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 112, 2016, pp. 529537. ##DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.211 ##[10] K.B. Park, and T. Noguchi, “Effects of mixing and curing temperature on the strength development and pore structure of fly ash blended mass concrete” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, 11p. DOI: 10.1155/2017/3452493 ##[11] J. Ortiz, A. Aguado, L. Agullό, and T. Garca, “Influence of environmental temperatures on the concrete compressive strength: Simulation of hot and cold weather conditions” Cement and concrete research, Vol. 35, No. 10, 2010, pp. 19701979. http://hdl.handle.net/2117/2484 ##[12] O.S.B. AlAmoudi, M. Maslehuddin, M. Shameem, I. Mohamed, “Shrinkage of plain and silica fume cement concrete under hot weather” Cement and Concrete Composites, 2016, Vol. 29, No. 9, pp. 690699. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2007.05.006 ##[13] R. Shalon, “Report on behavior of concrete in hot climate” Part I. Materials and Structures, Vol. 11, No. 62, 1987, pp. 127131. ##[14] ACI Committee 116, "Cement and Concrete Terminology” ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, American Concrete Institute: Farmington Hills, 2000. ##[15] B.H. Ahmadi, “Initial and final setting time of concrete in hot weather” Materials and Structures, Vol. 33, 2000, pp. 511514. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02480528 ##[16] C. Ishee, and S. Surana, “Hot weather concreting" In Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete." Wood Head Publishing, 2019, pp. 131150. ##[7] S. Kar and S. Sanjay “Effect of admixtures on shrinkage properties in selfcompacting concrete” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2016, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 292296. ##[18] Kamal, M.M., Safan, M.A., Etman, Z.A., and ELdabouly, E. A., “Evaluating the Prolonged Properties of Fresh Selfcompacting Concrete Incorporating Recycled Aggregates” International Journal of Current Engineering and Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2013, pp. 436446. ##[19] S. AlMartini and M. AlKhatib, “Rheology of selfconsolidating concrete (SCC) under hot weather conditions” Construction Materials, October 2017, 12p. DOI: 10.1680/jcoma.17.00017 ##[20] T.R. Karl, et.al, “Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus” Science, Vol. 348, No. 6242, January 2015, pp. 1469–1472. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa5632 ##[21] European Federation of National Associations Representing for Concrete (EFNARC), “Specifications and guidelines for selfcompacting concrete” 2002, 32p. ##[22] ASTM C827/C827M – 10 “Change in Height at Early Ages of Cylindrical Specimens of Cementitious Mixtures” 2010, 5p. ##[23] ASTM Standard C33, 2003 (2006), “Specification for Concrete Aggregates” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006. DOI:10.1520/C003303R06 ##[24] ASTM C494 “Chemical Admixtures for Concrete” ASTM Committee C09, 1999, 9p.##]
On the Performance of Peristaltic Pumping for the MHD Slip Flow under the Variation of Elastic Walls Features
2
2
This research is mainly concerned with studying the performance of the peristaltic flow of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous compressible flow under the impact of slip conditions, magnetic flux density, elastic features of the wave, and the liquid compressibility. The model taken represents a twodimensional flexible sinusoidal rectangular duct with springdamper backing. The perturbation approach is expanded as a series over the governing equations and the nonlinear solution is introduced. Analytical relations describing the mean axial velocity, the mean velocity perturbation function, the net volumetric flow rate, the velocity corresponding to the elastic walls, and the critical wall tension are obtained with a small perturbation parameter known as amplitude ratio. The reversal flow occurs near the core of the channel when the critical tension is reached. The compliant wall features, magnetic flux density and slip conditions are strongly changing the dynamic behavior of the induced flow. The flow of biofluids through the human body is a good application related to this study.
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231
244


Ramzy
Abumandour
Basic Engineering Sciences Department, Engineering Faculty, Menoufia University
Basic Engineering Sciences Department, Engineering
Iran
ramzy_0000@yahoo.com


Islam
Eldesoky
Basic Engineering Sciences Dep., Faculty of Engineering, Shibin Elkom , Elmenoufia , Egypt
Basic Engineering Sciences Dep., Faculty
Iran
eldesokyi@yahoo.com


Essam
Abdelwahab
Basic Engineering Sciences Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menofia University, Shebin ElKom, Egypt
Basic Engineering Sciences Department, Faculty
Iran
eng.essamthrwt@yahoo.com
Peristaltic Flow
Wall properties
compressible flow
MHD
Slip conditions
[[1] T. W. Latham, "Fluid motions in a peristaltic pump," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1966. ##[2] Y. Fung and C. Yih, "Peristaltic transport," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 669675, 1968. ##[3] Y.c. Fung, Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissues. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ##[4] M. R. Ricard and Y. R. Nuñez, "STABILITY OF LONG WAVE PERISTALTIC TRANSPORT OF COMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLUID," in Proc. of the 2006 International Symposium on Mathematical and Computational Biology: BIOMAT 2006, 2006: Editora Epapers. ##[5] A. H. Shapiro, M. Y. Jaffrin, and S. L. Weinberg, "Peristaltic pumping with long wavelengths at low Reynolds number," Journal of fluid mechanics, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 799825, 1969. ##[6] A. Sinha, G. Shit, and N. Ranjit, "Peristaltic transport of MHD flow and heat transfer in an asymmetric channel: Effects of variable viscosity, velocityslip and temperature jump," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 691704, 2015. ##[7] S. Srinivas, R. Gayathri, and M. Kothandapani, "The influence of slip conditions, wall properties and heat transfer on MHD peristaltic transport," Computer Physics Communications, vol. 180, no. 11, pp. 21152122, 2009. ##[8] L. Srivastava and V. Srivastava, "On twophase model of pulsatile blood flow with entrance effects," Biorheology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 761777, 1983. ##[9] L. Srivastava and V. Srivastava, "Peristaltic transport of blood: Casson model—II," Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 821829, 1984. ##[10] L. Srivastava and V. Srivastava, "Interaction of peristaltic flow with pulsatile flow in a circular cylindrical tube," Journal of biomechanics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 247253, 1985. ##[11] L. Srivastava and V. Srivastava, "Peristaltic transport of a particlefluid suspension," Journal of biomechanical engineering, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 157165, 1989. ##[12] V. Srivastava and M. Saxena, "A twofluid model of nonNewtonian blood flow induced by peristaltic waves," Rheologica Acta, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 406414, 1995. ##[13] V. Srivastava and L. Srivastava, "Effects of Poiseuille flow on peristaltic transport of a particulate suspension," Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik ZAMP, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 655679, 1995. ##[14] V. Sud, G. Sekhon, and R. Mishra, "Pumping action on blood by a magnetic field," Bulletin of mathematical biology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 385390, 1977. ##[15] S. I. Abdelsalam and K. Vafai, "Combined effects of magnetic field and rheological properties on the peristaltic flow of a compressible fluid in a microfluidic channel," European Journal of MechanicsB/Fluids, vol. 65, pp. 398411, 2017. ##[16] I. Eldesoky, "Influence of slip condition on peristaltic transport of a compressible Maxwell fluid through porous medium in a tube," International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 99117, 2012. ##[17] N. S. Akbar, "Application of EyringPowell fluid model in peristalsis with nano particles," Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 94100, 2015. ##[18] T. Hayat, N. Saleem, Y. Abd Elmaboud, and S. Asghar, "Peristaltic flow of a second‐order fluid in the presence of an induced magnetic field," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 537558, 2011. ##[19] F. Abbasi, T. Hayat, A. Alsaedi, and B. Ahmed, "Soret and Dufour effects on peristaltic transport of MHD fluid with variable viscosity," Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 211, 2014. ##[20] K. S. Mekheimer, S. R. Komy, and S. I. Abdelsalam, "Simultaneous effects of magnetic field and space porosity on compressible Maxwell fluid transport induced by a surface acoustic wave in a microchannel," Chinese Physics B, vol. 22, no. 12, p. 124702, 2013. ##[21] Y. A. Elmaboud, S. I. Abdelsalam, K. S. Mekheimer, and K. Vafai, "Electromagnetic flow for twolayer immiscible fluids," Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 2018. ##[22] S. R. El Koumy, I. B. El Sayed, and S. I. Abdelsalam, "Hall and porous boundaries effects on peristaltic transport through porous medium of a Maxwell model," Transport in porous media, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 643658, 2012. ##[23] S. I. Abdelsalam and K. Vafai, "Particulate suspension effect on peristaltically induced unsteady pulsatile flow in a narrow artery: blood flow model," Mathematical biosciences, vol. 283, pp. 91105, 2017. ##[24] S. I. Abdelsalam and M. M. Bhatti, "The impact of impinging TiO2 nanoparticles in Prandtl nanofluid along with endoscopic and variable magnetic field effects on peristaltic blood flow," Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, 2018. ##[25] S. I. Abdelsalam and M. Bhatti, "The study of nonNewtonian nanofluid with hall and ion slip effects on peristaltically induced motion in a nonuniform channel," RSC advances, vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 79047915, 2018. ##[26] Y. Abd Elmaboud, K. S. Mekheimer, and S. I. Abdelsalam, "A study of nonlinear variable viscosity in finitelength tube with peristalsis," Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 197206, 2014. ## [27] A. Aarts and G. Ooms, "Net flow of compressible viscous liquids induced by travelling waves in porous media," Journal of engineering mathematics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 435450, 1998. ##[28] I. M. Eldesoky and A. A. 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A Proposed Model for Measuring the Performance of Smart Public Parks
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Public parks are one of the most important uses of land in cities, because they are green spaces that contribute to purifying the urban environment from carbon emissions and air pollution ratios. They also contribute greatly, including their recreational activities, to the psychological and physical satisfaction of their visitors. Technologies development; a new concept has emerged called Smart Parks that depend on providing energy and are part of the smart city system. Through the research, a deductive approach was followed through an analysis of global and regional models of smart parks, with the aim of extracting and defining performance measurement criteria to integrate them with the consistent design principles of smart parks. The study set up a proposed model that can be applied to measure the performance of smart parks and the performance of existing traditional parks to support their transformation into smart parks. The model included (8) main criteria, (25) sub criteria, (84) key performance measurement indicators (KPIs). The researcher applied this model to “AlAzhar Park” and identified indicators that need to be assessed to turn it to a smart park.
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Eslam
Elsayed
Architecture Department, Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Benha Universityز
Architecture Department, Shoubra Faculty
Iran
islam.alsayed@feng.bu.edu.eg


Ahmed
Ashrry
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Architecture Eng., Shoubra Faculty of Eng., Benha University, Cairo, Egypt.
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Architecture
Iran
ahmedashrry@gmail.com
Keywords: smart park
smart governance
key performance measurement indicators (KPIs)
smart environment
landscape elements
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